docs/README-winrt.md
author David Ludwig <dludwig@pobox.com>
Sun, 08 Feb 2015 15:44:15 -0500
changeset 9335 3eb0896ecb91
parent 9255 c2ef0d8d6da0
child 9390 afd88e715bd7
permissions -rw-r--r--
WinRT: made note that VSync is always enabled on WinPhone, due to OS

Windows Phone does not appear to allow VSync to be turned off. Doing so appears
to either result in content not getting drawn (when the D3D debug runtime is
turned off), or forcing VSync back on and logging an error (when the D3D debug
runtime is turned on).

VSync had been getting turned on anyways, this change just notes such:
- via the WinRT README
- by always setting the SDL_RENDERER_PRESENTVSYNC flag when creating an
SDL_Renderer on Windows Phone
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WinRT
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=====
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This port allows SDL applications to run on Microsoft's platforms that require
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use of "Windows Runtime", aka. "WinRT", APIs.  WinRT apps are currently
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full-screen only, and run in what Microsoft sometimes refers to as their
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"Modern" (formerly, "Metro"), environment.  For Windows 8.x, Microsoft may also
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refer to them as "Windows Store" apps, due to them being distributed,
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primarily, via a Microsoft-run online store (of the same name).
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Some of the operating systems that include WinRT, are:
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* Windows 8.x
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* Windows RT 8.x (aka. Windows 8.x for ARM processors)
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* Windows Phone 8.x
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Requirements
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------------
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* Microsoft Visual C++ (aka Visual Studio), either 2013 or 2012 versions
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  - Free, "Community" or "Express" editions may be used, so long as they
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    include  support for either "Windows Store" or "Windows Phone" apps.
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    "Express" versions marked as supporting "Windows Desktop" development
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    typically do not include support for creating WinRT apps, to note.
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    (The "Community" edition of Visual C++ 2013 does, however, support both
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    desktop/Win32 and WinRT development).
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  - Visual C++ 2012 can only build apps that target versions 8.0 of Windows,
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    or  Windows Phone.  8.0-targetted apps will run on devices running 8.1
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    editions of Windows, however they will not be able to take advantage of
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    8.1-specific features.
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  - Visual C++ 2013 cannot create app projects that target Windows 8.0.
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    Visual C++ 2013 Update 4, can create app projects for Windows Phone 8.0,
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    Windows Phone 8.1, and Windows 8.1, but not Windows 8.0.  An optional
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    Visual Studio add-in, "Tools for Maintaining Store apps for Windows 8",
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    allows Visual C++ 2013 to load and build Windows 8.0 projects that were
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    created with Visual C++ 2012, so long as Visual C++ 2012 is installed
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    on the same machine.  More details on targeting different versions of
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    Windows can found at the following web pages:
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      - [Develop apps by using Visual Studio 2013](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/br211384.aspx)
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      - [To add the Tools for Maintaining Store apps for Windows 8](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/dn263114.aspx#AddMaintenanceTools)
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* A valid Microsoft account - This requirement is not imposed by SDL, but
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  rather by Microsoft's Visual C++ toolchain.  This is required to launch or 
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  debug apps.
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Status
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------
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Here is a rough list of what works, and what doens't:
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* What works:
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  * compilation via Visual C++ 2012 and 2013
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  * compile-time platform detection for SDL programs.  The C/C++ #define,
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    `__WINRT__`, will be set to 1 (by SDL) when compiling for WinRT.
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  * GPU-accelerated 2D rendering, via SDL_Renderer.
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  * software rendering, via either SDL_Surface (optionally in conjunction with
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    SDL_GetWindowSurface() and SDL_UpdateWindowSurface()) or via the
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    SDL_Renderer APIs
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  * threads.  Significant chunks of Win32's threading APIs are not available in
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    WinRT.  A new, SDL threading backend was built using C++11's threading APIs
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    (std::thread, std::mutex, std::condition_variable, etc.), which C or C++
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    programs alike can access via SDL's threading APIs.  Support for thread
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    priorities is not, however, currently available, due to restrictions in
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    WinRT's own API set.
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  * timers (via SDL_GetTicks(), SDL_AddTimer(), SDL_GetPerformanceCounter(),
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    SDL_GetPerformanceFrequency(), etc.)
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  * file I/O via SDL_RWops
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  * mouse input  (unsupported on Windows Phone)
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  * audio, via a modified version of SDL's XAudio2 backend
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  * .DLL file loading.  Libraries must be packaged inside applications.  Loading
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    anything outside of the app is not supported.
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  * system path retrieval via SDL's filesystem APIs
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  * game controllers.  Support is provided via the SDL_Joystick and
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    SDL_GameController APIs, and is backed by Microsoft's XInput API.
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  * multi-touch input
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  * app events.  SDL_APP_WILLENTER* and SDL_APP_DIDENTER* events get sent out as
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    appropriate.
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  * window events.  SDL_WINDOWEVENT_MINIMIZED and SDL_WINDOWEVENT_RESTORED are
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    sent out on app suspend and resume, respectively.  SDL_WINDOWEVENT_SHOWN and
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    SDL_WINDOWEVENT_HIDDEN are also sent, but not necessarily on app suspend or
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    resume, as WinRT treats these two concepts differently..
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  * using Direct3D 11.x APIs outside of SDL.  Non-XAML / Direct3D-only apps can
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    choose to render content directly via Direct3D, using SDL to manage the
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    internal WinRT window, as well as input and audio.  (Use
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    SDL_GetWindowWMInfo() to get the WinRT 'CoreWindow', and pass it into
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    IDXGIFactory2::CreateSwapChainForCoreWindow() as appropriate.)
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* What partially works:
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  * keyboard input.  Most of WinRT's documented virtual keys are supported, as
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    well as many keys with documented hardware scancodes.
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  * OpenGL.  Experimental support for OpenGL ES 2 is available via the ANGLE
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    project, using either MS Open Technologies' repository, at 
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    https://github.com/msopentech/angle (both the "winrt" and "future-dev"
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    branches are supported), or the official ANGLE repository, at
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    https://chromium.googlesource.com/angle/angle
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  * SDLmain.  WinRT uses a different signature for each app's main() function.
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    SDL-based apps that use this port must compile in SDL_winrt_main_NonXAML.cpp
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    (in `SDL\src\main\winrt\`) directly in order for their C-style main()
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    functions to be called.
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  * XAML interoperability.  This feature is currently experimental (there are
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    **many** known bugs in this, at present!), preliminary, and only for
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    Windows 8.x/RT at the moment.  Windows Phone + XAML support is still
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    pending.
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* What doesn't work:
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  * compilation with anything other than Visual C++ 2012 or 2013
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  * programmatically-created custom cursors.  These don't appear to be supported
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    by WinRT.  Different OS-provided cursors can, however, be created via
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    SDL_CreateSystemCursor() (unsupported on Windows Phone)
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  * SDL_WarpMouseInWindow() or SDL_WarpMouseGlobal().  This are not currently
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    supported by WinRT itself.
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  * joysticks and game controllers that aren't supported by Microsoft's XInput
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    API.
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  * turning off VSync when rendering on Windows Phone.  Attempts to turn VSync
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    off on Windows Phone result either in Direct3D not drawing anything, or it
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    forcing VSync back on.  As such, SDL_RENDERER_PRESENTVSYNC will always get
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    turned-on on Windows Phone.  This limitation is not present in non-Phone
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    WinRT (such as Windows 8.x), where turning off VSync appears to work.
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  * probably anything else that's not listed as supported
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Upgrade Notes
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-------------
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#### SDL_GetPrefPath() usage when upgrading WinRT apps from SDL 2.0.3
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SDL 2.0.4 fixes two bugs found in the WinRT version of SDL_GetPrefPath().
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The fixes may affect older, SDL 2.0.3-based apps' save data.  Please note
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that these changes only apply to SDL-based WinRT apps, and not to apps for
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any other platform.
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1. SDL_GetPrefPath() would return an invalid path, one in which the path's
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   directory had not been created.  Attempts to create files there
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   (via fopen(), for example), would fail, unless that directory was
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   explicitly created beforehand.
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2. SDL_GetPrefPath(), for non-WinPhone-based apps, would return a path inside
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   a WinRT 'Roaming' folder, the contents of which get automatically
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   synchronized across multiple devices.  This process can occur while an
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   application runs, and can cause existing save-data to be overwritten
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   at unexpected times, with data from other devices.  (Windows Phone apps
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   written with SDL 2.0.3 did not utilize a Roaming folder, due to API
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   restrictions in Windows Phone 8.0).
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SDL_GetPrefPath(), starting with SDL 2.0.4, addresses these by:
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1. making sure that SDL_GetPrefPath() returns a directory in which data
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   can be written to immediately, without first needing to create directories.
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2. basing SDL_GetPrefPath() off of a different, non-Roaming folder, the
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   contents of which do not automatically get synchronized across devices
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   (and which require less work to use safely, in terms of data integrity).
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Apps that wish to get their Roaming folder's path can do so either by using
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SDL_WinRTGetFSPathUTF8(), SDL_WinRTGetFSPathUNICODE() (which returns a
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UCS-2/wide-char string), or directly through the WinRT class,
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Windows.Storage.ApplicationData.
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Setup, High-Level Steps
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-----------------------
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The steps for setting up a project for an SDL/WinRT app looks like the
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following, at a high-level:
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1. create a new Visual C++ project using Microsoft's template for a,
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   "Direct3D App".
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2. remove most of the files from the project.
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3. make your app's project directly reference SDL/WinRT's own Visual C++
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   project file, via use of Visual C++'s "References" dialog.  This will setup
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   the linker, and will copy SDL's .dll files to your app's final output.
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4. adjust your app's build settings, at minimum, telling it where to find SDL's
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   header files.
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5. add a file that contains a WinRT-appropriate main function.
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6. add SDL-specific app code.
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7. build and run your app.
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Setup, Detailed Steps
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---------------------
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### 1. Create a new project ###
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Create a new project using one of Visual C++'s templates for a plain, non-XAML,
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"Direct3D App" (XAML support for SDL/WinRT is not yet ready for use).  If you
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don't see one of these templates, in Visual C++'s 'New Project' dialog, try
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using the textbox titled, 'Search Installed Templates' to look for one.
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### 2. Remove unneeded files from the project ###
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In the new project, delete any file that has one of the following extensions:
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- .cpp
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- .h
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- .hlsl
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When you are done, you should be left with a few files, each of which will be a
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necessary part of your app's project.  These files will consist of:
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- an .appxmanifest file, which contains metadata on your WinRT app.  This is
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  similar to an Info.plist file on iOS, or an AndroidManifest.xml on Android.
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- a few .png files, one of which is a splash screen (displayed when your app
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  launches), others are app icons.
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- a .pfx file, used for code signing purposes.
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### 3. Add references to SDL's project files ###
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SDL/WinRT can be built in multiple variations, spanning across three different
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CPU architectures (x86, x64, and ARM) and two different configurations
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(Debug and Release).  WinRT and Visual C++ do not currently provide a means
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for combining multiple variations of one library into a single file.
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Furthermore, it does not provide an easy means for copying pre-built .dll files
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into your app's final output (via Post-Build steps, for example).  It does,
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however, provide a system whereby an app can reference the MSVC projects of
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libraries such that, when the app is built:
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1. each library gets built for the appropriate CPU architecture(s) and WinRT
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   platform(s).
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2. each library's output, such as .dll files, get copied to the app's build 
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   output.
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To set this up for SDL/WinRT, you'll need to run through the following steps:
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1. open up the Solution Explorer inside Visual C++ (under the "View" menu, then
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   "Solution Explorer")
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2. right click on your app's solution.
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3. navigate to "Add", then to "Existing Project..."
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4. find SDL/WinRT's Visual C++ project file and open it.  Different project
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   files exist for different WinRT platforms.  All of them are in SDL's
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   source distribution, in the following directories:
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    * `VisualC-WinRT/WinPhone80_VS2012/` - for Windows Phone 8.0 apps
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    * `VisualC-WinRT/WinPhone81_VS2013/` - for Windows Phone 8.1 apps
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    * `VisualC-WinRT/WinRT80_VS2012/` - for Windows 8.0 apps
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    * `VisualC-WinRT/WinRT81_VS2013/` - for Windows 8.1 apps
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5. once the project has been added, right-click on your app's project and
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   select, "References..."
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6. click on the button titled, "Add New Reference..."
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7. check the box next to SDL
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8. click OK to close the dialog
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9. SDL will now show up in the list of references.  Click OK to close that
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   dialog.
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Your project is now linked to SDL's project, insofar that when the app is
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built, SDL will be built as well, with its build output getting included with
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your app.
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### 4. Adjust Your App's Build Settings ###
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Some build settings need to be changed in your app's project.  This guide will
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outline the following:
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- making sure that the compiler knows where to find SDL's header files
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- **Optional for C++, but NECESSARY for compiling C code:** telling the
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  compiler not to use Microsoft's C++ extensions for WinRT development.
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- **Optional:** telling the compiler not generate errors due to missing
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  precompiled header files.
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To change these settings:
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1. right-click on the project
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2. choose "Properties"
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3. in the drop-down box next to "Configuration", choose, "All Configurations"
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4. in the drop-down box next to "Platform", choose, "All Platforms"
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5. in the left-hand list, expand the "C/C++" section
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6. select "General"
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7. edit the "Additional Include Directories" setting, and add a path to SDL's
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   "include" directory
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8. **Optional: to enable compilation of C code:** change the setting for
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   "Consume Windows Runtime Extension" from "Yes (/ZW)" to "No".  If you're 
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   working with a completely C++ based project, this step can usually be 
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   omitted.
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9. **Optional: to disable precompiled headers (which can produce 
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   'stdafx.h'-related build errors, if setup incorrectly:** in the left-hand 
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   list, select "Precompiled Headers", then change the setting for "Precompiled 
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   Header" from "Use (/Yu)" to "Not Using Precompiled Headers".
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10. close the dialog, saving settings, by clicking the "OK" button
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### 5. Add a WinRT-appropriate main function to the app. ###
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C/C++-based WinRT apps do contain a `main` function that the OS will invoke when 
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the app starts launching. The parameters of WinRT main functions are different 
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than those found on other platforms, Win32 included.  SDL/WinRT provides a 
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platform-appropriate main function that will perform these actions, setup key 
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portions of the app, then invoke a classic, C/C++-style main function (that take 
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in "argc" and "argv" parameters).  The code for this file is contained inside 
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SDL's source distribution, under `src/main/winrt/SDL_winrt_main_NonXAML.cpp`.  
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You'll need to add this file, or a copy of it, to your app's project, and make 
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sure it gets compiled using a Microsoft-specific set of C++ extensions called 
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C++/CX.
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**NOTE: C++/CX compilation is currently required in at least one file of your 
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app's project.  This is to make sure that Visual C++'s linker builds a 'Windows 
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Metadata' file (.winmd) for your app.  Not doing so can lead to build errors.**
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To include `SDL_winrt_main_NonXAML.cpp`:
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1. right-click on your project (again, in Visual C++'s Solution Explorer), 
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   navigate to "Add", then choose "Existing Item...".
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2. open `SDL_winrt_main_NonXAML.cpp`, which is found inside SDL's source 
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   distribution, under `src/main/winrt/`.  Make sure that the open-file dialog 
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   closes, either by double-clicking on the file, or single-clicking on it and 
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   then clicking Add.
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3. right-click on the file (as listed in your project), then click on 
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   "Properties...".
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4. in the drop-down box next to "Configuration", choose, "All Configurations"
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5. in the drop-down box next to "Platform", choose, "All Platforms"
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6. in the left-hand list, click on "C/C++"
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7. change the setting for "Consume Windows Runtime Extension" to "Yes (/ZW)".
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8. click the OK button.  This will close the dialog.
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### 6. Add app code and assets ###
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At this point, you can add in SDL-specific source code.  Be sure to include a 
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C-style main function (ie: `int main(int argc, char *argv[])`).  From there you 
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should be able to create a single `SDL_Window` (WinRT apps can only have one 
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window, at present), as well as an `SDL_Renderer`.  Direct3D will be used to 
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draw content.  Events are received via SDL's usual event functions 
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(`SDL_PollEvent`, etc.)  If you have a set of existing source files and assets, 
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you can start adding them to the project now.  If not, or if you would like to 
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make sure that you're setup correctly, some short and simple sample code is 
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provided below.
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#### 6.A. ... when creating a new app ####
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If you are creating a new app (rather than porting an existing SDL-based app), 
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or if you would just like a simple app to test SDL/WinRT with before trying to 
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get existing code working, some working SDL/WinRT code is provided below.  To 
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set this up:
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1. right click on your app's project
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2. select Add, then New Item.  An "Add New Item" dialog will show up.
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3. from the left-hand list, choose "Visual C++"
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4. from the middle/main list, choose "C++ File (.cpp)"
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5. near the bottom of the dialog, next to "Name:", type in a name for your 
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source file, such as, "main.cpp".
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6. click on the Add button.  This will close the dialog, add the new file to 
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your project, and open the file in Visual C++'s text editor.
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7. Copy and paste the following code into the new file, then save it.
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    #include <SDL.h>
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    int main(int argc, char **argv)
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    {
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        SDL_DisplayMode mode;
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        SDL_Window * window = NULL;
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        SDL_Renderer * renderer = NULL;
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        SDL_Event evt;
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        if (SDL_Init(SDL_INIT_VIDEO) != 0) {
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            return 1;
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        }
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        if (SDL_GetCurrentDisplayMode(0, &mode) != 0) {
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            return 1;
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        }
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        if (SDL_CreateWindowAndRenderer(mode.w, mode.h, SDL_WINDOW_FULLSCREEN, &window, &renderer) != 0) {
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            return 1;
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        }
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        while (1) {
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            while (SDL_PollEvent(&evt)) {
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            }
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            SDL_SetRenderDrawColor(renderer, 0, 255, 0, 255);
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            SDL_RenderClear(renderer);
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            SDL_RenderPresent(renderer);
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        }
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    }
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#### 6.B. Adding code and assets ####
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If you have existing code and assets that you'd like to add, you should be able 
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to add them now.  The process for adding a set of files is as such.
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1. right click on the app's project
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2. select Add, then click on "New Item..."
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3. open any source, header, or asset files as appropriate.  Support for C and 
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C++ is available.
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Do note that WinRT only supports a subset of the APIs that are available to 
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Win32-based apps.  Many portions of the Win32 API and the C runtime are not 
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available.
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A list of unsupported C APIs can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/jj606124.aspx>
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General information on using the C runtime in WinRT can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/LIBRARY/hh972425(v=vs.110).aspx>
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A list of supported Win32 APIs for Windows 8/RT apps can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/br205757.aspx>.  To note, 
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the list of supported Win32 APIs for Windows Phone 8 development is different.  
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That list can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windowsphone/develop/jj662956(v=vs.105).aspx>
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### 7. Build and run your app ###
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Your app project should now be setup, and you should be ready to build your app.  
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To run it on the local machine, open the Debug menu and choose "Start 
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Debugging".  This will build your app, then run your app full-screen.  To switch 
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out of your app, press the Windows key.  Alternatively, you can choose to run 
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your app in a window.  To do this, before building and running your app, find 
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the drop-down menu in Visual C++'s toolbar that says, "Local Machine".  Expand 
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this by clicking on the arrow on the right side of the list, then click on 
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Simulator.  Once you do that, any time you build and run the app, the app will 
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launch in window, rather than full-screen.
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#### 7.A. Running apps on ARM-based devices ####
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To build and run the app on ARM-based, "Windows RT" devices, you'll need to:
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- install Microsoft's "Remote Debugger" on the device.  Visual C++ installs and 
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  debugs ARM-based apps via IP networks.
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- change a few options on the development machine, both to make sure it builds 
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  for ARM (rather than x86 or x64), and to make sure it knows how to find the 
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  Windows RT device (on the network).
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Microsoft's Remote Debugger can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/vstudio/bt727f1t.aspx>.  Please note 
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that separate versions of this debugger exist for different versions of Visual 
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C++, one for debugging with MSVC 2012, another for debugging with MSVC 2013.
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To setup Visual C++ to launch your app on an ARM device:
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1. make sure the Remote Debugger is running on your ARM device, and that it's on 
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   the same IP network as your development machine.
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2. from Visual C++'s toolbar, find a drop-down menu that says, "Win32".  Click 
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   it, then change the value to "ARM".
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3. make sure Visual C++ knows the hostname or IP address of the ARM device.  To 
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   do this:
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    1. open the app project's properties
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    2. select "Debugging"
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    3. next to "Machine Name", enter the hostname or IP address of the ARM 
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       device
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    4. if, and only if, you've turned off authentication in the Remote Debugger,
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       then change the setting for "Require Authentication" to No
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    5. click "OK"
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4. build and run the app (from Visual C++).  The first time you do this, a 
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   prompt will show up on the ARM device, asking for a Microsoft Account.  You 
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   do, unfortunately, need to log in here, and will need to follow the 
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   subsequent registration steps in order to launch the app.  After you do so, 
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   if the app didn't already launch, try relaunching it again from within Visual 
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   C++.
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Troubleshooting
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---------------
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#### Build fails with message, "error LNK2038: mismatch detected for 'vccorlib_lib_should_be_specified_before_msvcrt_lib_to_linker'"
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Try adding the following to your linker flags.  In MSVC, this can be done by
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right-clicking on the app project, navigating to Configuration Properties ->
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Linker -> Command Line, then adding them to the Additional Options
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section.
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* For Release builds / MSVC-Configurations, add:
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    /nodefaultlib:vccorlib /nodefaultlib:msvcrt vccorlib.lib msvcrt.lib
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* For Debug builds / MSVC-Configurations, add:
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    /nodefaultlib:vccorlibd /nodefaultlib:msvcrtd vccorlibd.lib msvcrtd.lib
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